L-Carnosine - "The Super Peptide"
L-Carnosine (kahr´no-sën), is a well-known neuropeptide consisting
of alanine and histidine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine). It is normally made in the
human body and is found at high levels in brain, innervated tissues, the lens
of the eye, and skeletal muscle tissue.
In laboratory studies, it has been
demonstrated that carnosine has the ability to protect cells against oxidative
stress as well as to increase their resistance toward functional exhaustion and
accumulation of senile features. Mechanisms of such protection are explained in
- proton buffering (maintaining pH balance in the muscles
in heavy exercise)
- heavy metal chelating (especially copper and zinc)
and active sugar molecule scavenging (prevents glycation and carbonylation of
- preventing the modification of biomacromolecules thereby keeping
their native functionality under oxidative stress
(20-30 micromoles, or mM) in standard media prolong the in-vitro life span of
human fibroblast cells and strongly reduce the normal features of senescence (ageing).
In laboratory animals, carnosine clearly improved the external appearance of experimental
animals and produced apparent beneficial effects on behavioral parameters and
average life span.
Age-related conditions that carnosine may be useful
- neurological degeneration (Alzheimer´s, Parkinson´s,
epilepsy depression, schizophrenia, mild cognitive impairment, dementia and stroke)
Spectrum Disorders, Asperger´s syndrome, ADHD, dyslexia
senescence (ageing) in general
- cross-linking of the eye lens (cataracts)
of skin collagen (skin ageing)
- formation of advanced glycation end products
- accumulation of damaged proteins
- muscle atrophy
circulation deficit (stroke)
- cardiovascular conditions
and its complications.
Carnosine as a multifunctional dietary supplement
is a relatively new discovery. It is an amazing physiological and 100 % natural
super-antioxidant with numerous biological roles including (in addition to the
- universal and versatile antioxidant activity
- increasing muscle strength and endurance
up recovery after sprints
- inhibiting cellular damage caused by alcohol
- None reported. Carnosine is nontoxic.
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